IP and virtual assistants


  • Ilaria Morsello
  • Mariya Nikolova
  • Nuria Martínez Sahagún
  • Rosario Isabel Rauber Mendoza
  • Victoria O’Connor
  • Wouter Torfs
  • Zoe Hustin


Virtual assistants, Generative artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, Trade marks, Patents, Copyright, Designs, Black box


This paper considers the implications of virtual assistants for intellectual property law. The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic has been characterised by a rise in e-commerce through the use of virtual assistants (‘VAs’). Chatbots such as ChatGPT or Google’s Bard and smart speakers such as ALEXA, Siri or Google Assistant can be very useful for users by increasing efficiency gains, saving time and costs. However, the chatbots that are based on generative AI, are fed on mass data sets that can increase the risk of IP rights infringement and challenge fundamental concepts within IP rights relating to copyright, trade marks, patents and designs. It is found that IP law must continue to develop as VAs challenge traditional market dynamics.






Parte II - As novas fronteiras dos direitos intelectuais